Floriculture is the growing of cut flowers, potted flowering and foliage plants, and bedding plants in greenhouses and/or in fields. There are several thousand different species of flowers and plants that are grown as commercial crops. Cut flowers include such crops as roses, freesia, alstromeria and snapdragons. Some of the favourite flowering potted plants that are available year-round are African violets, orchids, cyclamen and potmums (potted Chrysanthemums). Some seasonal flowering plants are an important part of our traditions, for example, poinsettias for Christmas and Easter lilies for Easter
HOW ARE FLORICULTURE PRODUCTS PRODUCED?
Growers who produce crops year-round rely on greenhouses to protect their crops Floriculture also involves a considerable amount of production that is not greenhouse based, such as field-grown specialty cut flowers. It includes such products as daffodils, tulips, gladiolus, snapdragons.
WHAT DO FLORICULTURE PRODUCTS LOOK LIKE WHEN I USE THEM?
WHAT CHALLENGES DO FLORICULTURE PRODUCERS FACE?
Growers face many challenges including:
WHO'S INVOLVED IN PRODUCING FLORICULTURE PRODUCTS?
Greenhouse and field employees
Interesting Fact About Floriculture:
Some of our important floriculture crops originate as weeds in other parts of the world. For example, gerberas (Transvaal Daisies) in South Africa and eustoma (Prairie Gentian) in Texas. Some countries grow dandelions commercially as a salad crop. Floriculture is a world-wide industry: the flowers you buy today could have been picked in South America, Europe or Israel two days ago. To compete with imports, local growers must be able to provide a fresh, high quality product for less money.
All these, no doubt, have set flower business on a top gear. One may wonder, the global market on flower is at present, carrying a business worth 2000 crores US dollar (1992) par annum. India is also having a business worth R.280 crores in her domestic market (1992-93).
Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) conducted a survey of assessment on the possibilities of cut flowers trade in India during 1960-62. An important conclusion was that an internal sale as RS.9.26 Crores worth flower weighing 10,460 tones grown in an area of 4000 hector. Flowers like Rose, Gladiolus, Tuberose, Chrysanthemum, Aster, Carnation, Orchids, Marigold are most popular in cut flower market all over the World.
State Area (ha.)Karnataka 19,161
Tamil Nadu 14,194
West Bengal 12,285
Andhra Pradesh 5,933
Delhi 1,878 Haryana 1,540
Madhya Pradesh 1,270
Uttar Pradesh 1,000
FLOWER TRADE ACROSS THE WORLD:
World trade on floriculture produces like cut flowers, ornamental plants, flowering plants, flower seeds and plantlets gaining tremendous momentum. Many countries, particularly the developed ones, are importing flowers to meet their internal demand. It will be worthwhile to mention that the annual import figures of some of the largest importers on flowers - USA ( 232 crores US dollar) Japan ( 192 crores US $ ), Germany ( 180 crores US $) France (77 Crores Us Dollar) , Italy (55.6 Crores US Dollar), Holland (50 Crores US Dollar). The other importers like Switzerland, Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Middle-east countries etc. also import a sizable amount of cut flowers. In recent past, Israel has come up as the biggest grower of flowers, using modern agro-techniques like glass-house culture, drip irrigation, liquid pesticides & fertilisers application along with drip irrigation channels, Tissue Culture. It may be mentioned that the roses of Israel adjudged to be the best in the World. via-a-vis such a huge market potential of floriculture produce, India's contribution is not at all encouraging as its flower export amount to 30 lakh us dollar only, hence India has to do a lot to exploit this agro-business.
EXPORT OPPORTUNITY FOR INDIA - A REPORT OF A TRADE DELEGATION
A trade delegation for floriculture produces visited USSR, Holland, West Germany, USA during 1980. The delegation had highlighted the following points. .
The import to these countries will be mainly during winter season i.e. between November-March when agro-climatic conditions are not suitable for the plants.
Import of flowers grown under Glass-house conditions will be preferred for their uniformity in quality.
The ornamental flowers which have been highlighted for export from India to these countries include Gladioli, Roses of specific varieties, Chrysanthemum, Carnation orchids etc.
With the varied agro-climatic conditions of the country, no doubt, we have got good scope for the development of ornamental flowers like Rose, Gladioli, Tube rose etc. But, for all these we have to develop package of practices and post-harvest technologies so that their quick dispatch to foreign markets will be ensured. The foreign markets will however depend much on the quality of the produces.